The sources highlighted here include textbooks, literature reviews, and meta-analyses related to critical thinking. These contributions come from both psychological Halpern ; Nisbett ; Sternberg, et al. Many of these general overviews are textbooks Facione b ; Halpern ; Nisbett ; Sternberg, et al. Most resources were intended for a general audience, but Sternberg, et al. Those interested in a historical reference are referred to Ennis , which is credited by some as renewing contemporary interest in critical thinking.
On Critical Thinking
Those interested in a more recent conceptualization of critical thinking are referred to Facione a , which is a short introduction to the field of critical thinking that would be appropriate for those new to the field, or Facione , which summarizes a collaborative definition of critical thinking among philosophers using the Delphi method.
Facione b would be a valuable resource for philosophers teaching critical thinking or logic courses to general audiences. For psychologists teaching critical thinking courses to a general audience, Halpern , an empirically based textbook, covers a wide range of topics; a new edition is expected soon.
Fisher is also intended for general audiences and teaches a wide variety of critical thinking skills. Nisbett tackles the question of whether critical thinking skills can be taught and provides ample empirical evidence to that end.
Critical Thinking - Psychology - Oxford Bibliographies
A concept of critical thinking: A proposed basis of research in the teaching and evaluation of critical thinking. Harvard Educational Review Emphasizes twelve aspects of critical thinking. A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction; Executive Summary of The Delphi Report. Describes the critical thinking movement, definitions of critical thinking agreed upon by philosophers using the Delphi method, the assessment of critical thinking, and how critical thinking can be taught.
What it is and why it counts. This accessible paper defines critical thinking, elaborates on specific critical thinking skills, and discusses what it means to have or not have a critical thinking disposition. A distinction is made between system 1 shallow processing and system 2 deeper processing thinking. Good resource for students new to the field. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Written from a philosophical perspective this critical thinking textbook emphasizes the application of critical thinking to the real world and offers positive examples of critical thinking.
Chapters cover inductive, deductive, comparative, ideological, and empirical reasoning. Textbook intended for college students discusses various types of reasoning, causality, argument analysis, and decision making. Includes exercises for students and teachers.
An introduction to critical thinking. This textbook, written by a cognitive psychologist, is grounded in theory and research from the learning sciences and offers practical examples. Chapters include an introduction to the topic and the correlates of critical thinking, memory, thought and language, reasoning, analyzing arguments, thinking as hypothesis testing, likelihood and uncertainty, decision making, development of problem-solving skills, and creative thinking. For example, students can contrast different models to explain drug addiction in physiological psychology.
By examining the strengths and weaknesses of existing frameworks, they can select which theories serve best as they learn to justify their criticisms based on evidence and reason. Capstone, honors, and graduate courses go beyond theory evaluation to encourage students to create theory. Students select a complex question about behavior for example, identifying mechanisms that underlie autism or language acquisition and develop their own theory-based explanations for the behavior.
This challenge requires them to synthesize and integrate existing theory as well as devise new insights into the behavior. Most departments offer many opportunities for students to develop their methodological critical thinking abilities by applying different research methods in psychology. Beginning students must first learn what the scientific method entails. The next step is to apply their understanding of scientific method by identifying design elements in existing research. For example, any detailed description of an experimental design can help students practice distinguishing the independent from the dependent variable and identifying how researchers controlled for alternative explanations.
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The next methodological critical thinking goals include evaluating the quality of existing research design and challenging the conclusions of research findings. Students may need to feel empowered by the teacher to overcome the reverence they sometimes demonstrate for anything in print, including their textbooks.
Asking students to do a critical analysis on a fairly sophisticated design may simply be too big a leap for them to make. They are likely to fare better if given examples of bad design so they can build their critical abilities and confidence in order to tackle more sophisticated designs.
Social Psychology Pages
Examples of bad design can be found in The Critical Thinking Companion for Introductory Psychology or they can be easily constructed with a little time and imagination. Students will develop and execute their own research designs in their capstone methodology courses. In evaluating their work I have found it helpful to ask students to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their own work- as an additional opportunity to think critically-before giving them my feedback.
Adopting explicit critical thinking objectives, regardless of the domain of critical thinking, may entail some strategy changes on the part of the teacher. Students often think that their entry into the discipline represents an end-point where everything good and true has already been discovered.
That conclusion encourages passivity rather than criticality. Each new discovery in psychology represents a potentially elegant act of critical thinking. A lot of room for discovery remains. New ideas will be developed and old conceptions discarded. Group work, essays, debates, themes, letters to famous psychologists, journals, current event examples- all of these and more can be used as a means of developing the higher skills involved in critical thinking in psychology.
Find faulty cause-effect conclusions in the tabloids e. Ask students to identify what kinds of evidence would warrant belief in commercial claims. Although it is difficult, even well designed objective test items can capture critical thinking skills so that students are challenged beyond mere repetition and recall. Devising clear performance criteria for psychology projects will enhance student success. Performance criteria specify the standards that you will use to evaluate their work.
For example, perfonnance criteria for the observation exercise described earlier might include the following: The student describes behavior accurately; offers i nference that is reasonable for the context; and identifies personal factors that might influence infer ence.
Perfonnance criteria facilitate giving detailed feedback easily and can also promote student self-assessment. Students may not recognize when they are thinking critically.
Students often assume that if they have questions about their reading, then they are somehow being dishonorable, rude, or stupid. Model critical thinking from some insights you have had about behavior or from some research you have conducted in the past. Congratulate students who offer good examples of the principles under study. Thank students who ask concept-related questions and describe why you think their questions are good.
Leave time and space for more. Your own excitement about critical thinking can be a great incentive for students to seek that excitement. When you include more opportunity for student critical thinking in class, there is much more opportunity for the class to go astray. Stepping away from the podium and engaging the students to perform what they know necessitates some loss of control, or at least some enhanced risk.
However, the advantage is that no class will ever feel completely predictable, and this can be a source of stimulation for students and the professor as well. As far back as I can remember over 50 yrs. I have been talking psychology to friends, or helping them to solve problems. I never thought about psy. How can I become a critical thinker without condemning people? Your email address will not be published.
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