The tough advisor to Tokyo is the final word shuttle consultant to Japan's bizarre capital urban. Whether you are making plans to discover neighbourhoods reminiscent of Shinjuku, Ginza and Ueno extensive, or want fast-fix itineraries and "Best of" packing containers that select the highlights you will not are looking to omit, The tough advisor to Tokyo is your crucial advisor to the city.
The Cultural Career of Coolness: Cool is a note of yank English that has been built-in into the vocabulary of various languages all over the world. Trying to find strange coming of age books? Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of , which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body.
Following a coup instigated by the U. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Its political system is based on the Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. Armenier — Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians constitute the population of Armenia and the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. There is a diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside of modern Armenia. With the exceptions of Iran and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide, most Armenians adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a non-Chalcedonian church, which is also the worlds oldest national church.
Christianity began to spread in Armenia soon after Jesus death, due to the efforts of two of his apostles, St. Bartholomew, in the early 4th century, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as a state religion. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented in AD by Mesrop Mashtots, historically, the name Armenian has come to internationally designate this group of people.
It was first used by neighbouring countries of ancient Armenia, the earliest attestations of the exonym Armenia date around the 6th century BC. Movses Khorenatsi, the important early medieval Armenian historian, wrote that the word Armenian originated from the name Armenak or Aram, the Armenian Highland lies in the highlands surrounding Mount Ararat, the highest peak of the region.
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Each of the nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people. In Hamps view the homeland of this subgroup is the northeast coast of the Black Sea and he assumes that they migrated from there southeast through the Caucasus with the Armenians remaining after Batumi while the pre-Greeks proceeded westwards along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Christentum — Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion.
It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel also refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Mark, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization.
Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations. Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds.
They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds.
The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith.
It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists, and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above.
The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian communities, Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in the early 4th century.
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The church claims to have originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and it is sometimes referred to as the Armenian Orthodox Church or Gregorian Church. It is also known as the Armenian Church. The Armenian Church believes apostolic succession through the apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus, according to legend, the latter of the two apostles is said to have cured Abgar V of Edessa of leprosy with the Image of Edessa, leading to his conversion in 30 AD. After this, Bartholomew came to Armenia, bringing a portrait of the virgin Mary, Bartholomew then converted the sister of Sanatruk, who once again martyred a female relative and the apostle who converted her.
Both apostles ordained native bishops before their execution, and some other Armenians had been ordained outside of Armenia by James the Just. This conversion distinguished it from its Iranian and Mazdean roots and protected it from further Parthian influence, other scholars as well have stated that the acceptance of Christianity by the Arsacid-Armenian rulers was partly in defiance of the Sassanids. When King Trdat IV made Christianity the state religion of Armenia between and , it was not a new religion there. It had penetrated the country from at least the third century, Tiridates declared Gregory to be the first Catholicos of the Armenian Church and sent him to Caesarea to be consecrated.
Upon his return, Gregory tore down shrines to idols, built churches and monasteries, while meditating in the old capital city of Vagharshapat, Gregory had a vision of Christ descending to the earth and striking it with a hammer. From that spot arose a great Christian temple with a huge cross and he was convinced that God intended him to build the main Armenian church there.
With the kings help he did so in accord with his vision and he renamed the city Etchmiadzin, which means the place of the descent of the only-begotten. Initially the Armenian church participated in the church world. Its Catholicos was represented at the First Council of Nicea and the First Council of Constantinople, although unable to attend the Council of Ephesus, the Catholicos Isaac Parthiev sent a message agreeing with its decisions. Christianity was strengthened in Armenia in the 5th century by the translation of the Bible into the Armenian language by the theologian, monk.
Before the 5th century, Armenians had a language. Hrair Hagopian renovated the baptism pool and the church in memory of his beloved wife Vartoohi Davidian, armenians in Iran List of Armenian churches in Iran 2. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin 5. Sarkis Cathedral in Tehran, One of Iran's Armenian Churches completed in Sarkis Church altar, Saint Mary with Jesus. Sarkis Cathedral with its main dome and one of its belfries.
Interior of San Sarkis Cathedral. A cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan , from the 8th millennium BC. A bas-relief at Persepolis , depicting the united Medes and Persians. Ruins of the Gate of All Nations , Persepolis. Sasanian rock reliefs at Taq Bostan , in the heart of the Zagros Mountains. Hayk , the legendary founder of the Armenian nation.
Painting by Mkrtum Hovnatanian — Rest Fenner, published in The Cathedral of Ani , completed in Various depictions of Jesus. The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity. The Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian: Etchmiadzin Cathedral , the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Baptism of Tiridates III. Procession of Armenian Priests.
Armenian Church in Madras , India, constructed in Towers in Tehran City at night. Map of Tehran in An ancient item from Isfahan City Center museum.
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Isfahan, capital of the Kingdom of Persia. Map of New Julfa planimetry. An old photograph of the Holy Savior Cathedral from the s.
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A Christmas shop in New Julfa. Tabriz Municipality Palace , built on Aerial view of northeast Tabriz, May Christianity has a long history in Iran, dating back to the early years of the faith, and pre-dating Islam. Qara Kelissa , West Azarbaijan. Believed by some to have been first built in 66 AD by Saint Jude. Local Armenians believe that he and Simon were both buried here. In , the church was reconstructed after an earthquake destroyed the structure in Saint Mary Park in Tehran The Kaaba in Mecca is the direction of prayer and destination of pilgrimage for Muslim s.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha , consisting of seven verses. Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith. The Iranian Revolution Persian: Iranian Revolution in Shahyad Square. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Press conference on international oil policies. Niavaran Palace , Tehran ,